O que é transformação ágil por que os CIOs devem liderá-la na empresa


Mais CEOs estão considerando transformações ágeis em toda a empresa, permitindo uma oportunidade significativa para os CIOs liderarem mudanças

O agile pode ser usado fora das equipes de desenvolvimento de software, grupos de ciência de dados e organizações de TI para gerenciar o trabalho, colaborar nas prioridades e mudar a cultura? Certamente, algumas equipes de marketing, operações e até financeiras usaram processos ágeis para gerenciar seu trabalho. Mas o que isso significa para uma transformação ágil em toda a empresa?

As práticas ágeis mudam a natureza de como as equipes definem seus clientes, alinham-se às estratégias de implementação, debatem as prioridades e se comprometem a realizar o trabalho. Equipes ágeis com histórico de entrega consistente e que demonstram uma forte parceria com seus clientes podem mudar a cultura. Em vez de prioridades e cronogramas top-down, as equipes se alinham aos objetivos estratégicos e produzem resultados de negócios com entregas progressivas.

Os CEOs estão à procura de organizações mais inteligentes, mais rápidas e inovadoras que possam impulsionar o crescimento, possibilitar a conquista de experiências do cliente, competir com a análise e impulsionar a eficiência com a automação. Eles querem que seus departamentos de marketing experimentem, usem dados para aprender o que direciona comportamentos específicos e ajustam estratégias de marketing para fornecer resultados. Eles querem operações mais eficientes e de maior qualidade, equipes de vendas mais inteligentes fechando negócios mais estratégicos e relatórios e previsões de grupos financeiros em tempo quase real.

E os CEOs não sabem como chegar lá. Eles estão confiando cada vez mais em seus líderes e funcionários para preparar a jornada para eles. Os CIOs que se destacaram no fornecimento de resultados e mudança de cultura com práticas ágeis em TI têm a oportunidade de estender a prática, a cultura e a mentalidade como uma maneira ampla de operar.

Práticas de portfólio top-down são a base para transformações ágeis

Embora as práticas ágeis sejam consideradas um processo ascendente, uma transformação ágil em toda a empresa requer alguns processos e governança top-down como pré-requisitos.

  • De uma perspectiva top down, as operações em todos os departamentos, como geração de leads, vendas por linha de produto, processos de fabricação e processos de suporte de TI, devem ser definidas. No mínimo, eles devem ser catalogados e as práticas de seis sigma podem ser usadas para mapear o fluxo.
  • Tudo o que não está operacional é definido como uma iniciativa e gerenciado em um portfólio com metas e cartas publicadas em linguagem simples de entender. Também é preciso haver estruturas básicas de governança em torno de iniciativas que definam estágios, critérios de classificação entre estágios e critérios de investimento.
  • Também deve haver uma carta corporativa fácil de entender que defina claramente missões, metas, expectativas culturais, princípios operacionais, critérios de investimento, objetivos inteligentes de tomada de risco, diretrizes de conformidade, mecanismos de recompensa e outras expectativas.

As operações são gerenciadas por meio de KPIs, enquanto as transformações ágeis visam ao modo como as equipes organizam e gerenciam iniciativas. A carta corporativa é a governança de alto nível que as pessoas e equipes devem seguir ao executar suas iniciativas.

Indo da governança de cima para baixo até a entrega de baixo para cima com equipes ágeis auto-organizadas Com a governança básica em vigor, as transformações ágeis têm um escopo e diretrizes operacionais para gerar impacto nos negócios. O que torna isso ágil é que as equipes se auto-organizam para definir, executar e demonstrar o impacto de suas iniciativas.

E o que é fundamentalmente diferente em uma transformação ágil é a desvinculação de prazos financeiros (trimestres, anos) para prazos ágeis (lançamentos e cadências de impacto). As equipes não se encaixam mais na execução de suas iniciativas em cronogramas artificiais de relatórios financeiros e, em vez disso, definem cadências de melhorias de lançamento e cadências mais longas na avaliação do impacto.

Em segundo lugar, e mais importante, a transformação ágil estabelece o grau de autonomia conferido às equipes ágeis. Por exemplo, embora as iniciativas ainda possam ser acionadas por data, os escopos são negociados pelas equipes com base no que eles acreditam ser uma entrega minimamente viável.

Como é a transformação ágil quando aplicada em toda a empresa?

  • As equipes são desimpedidas de operar em ciclos financeiros trimestrais e anuais. Em vez disso, eles operam em ciclos de lançamento que definem com base no que é apropriado para a iniciativa, mas com alguns limites definidos nas diretrizes de operação.
  • As equipes se auto-organizam para propor, planejar e executar iniciativas. Gostaria de sugerir a revisão dos portais do estágio de iniciativa que defino no Driving Digital, que são leves nas fases iniciais e exigem mais rigor nos estágios posteriores. Isso promove a captura de muitas ideias, usando comitês de votação para promover as iniciativas mais promissoras e alavancar o planejamento ágil para gerenciar os estágios iniciais da definição do business case para investimento.
  • As equipes são multidisciplinares e usam scrum, Kanban ou outro processo ágil aprovado para trabalhar em seus lançamentos.
  • O impacto é definido, medido e relatado pela equipe em uma cadência que faz sentido para a iniciativa, mas novamente dentro das diretrizes operacionais definidas.
  • As equipes são solicitadas a definir e assumir compromissos. Equipes e indivíduos são avaliados em uma série de novos critérios, incluindo compromissos, impacto e aprendizado de falhas.
  • As práticas de gerenciamento de portfólio definem o que as equipes precisam fazer para apoiar sua iniciativa e quais controles de liderança estão em vigor para ajudar a acelerar, desacelerar ou parar de encontrar iniciativas.

Isto é apresentado em termos muito simplistas, mas o problema está nos detalhes. Organizações com mais segurança, conformidade e preocupações regulatórias precisam se ajustar com base em seus requisitos. Todas as organizações precisam ajustar às práticas com base no tamanho da organização, na concorrência em seu setor, no panorama geográfico de seus funcionários, na disponibilidade de habilidades, na complexidade dos processos herdados, no grau de risco aceitável, entre muitos outros fatores. É por isso que abordagens de tamanho único para transformações ágeis em toda a empresa não funcionam. As metas finais do processo, o processo de mudança e a velocidade da mudança precisam ser ajustadas pelas circunstâncias.

Como  transformações ágeis mudam paradigmas organizacionais

Práticas ágeis certamente tornam a vida mais difícil para o CFO, que deve reajustar o planejamento financeiro e os processos de relatórios às cadências usadas para liberação e impactos. Quando os resultados trimestrais e anuais são necessários, o status e as previsões de cada iniciativa precisam ser suspensos, em vez de abaixados. O uso de ferramentas de portfólio que agregam dados de sprints e releases ágeis pode ajudar especialmente quando há padrões de relatórios básicos para toda a empresa.

Isso exige que as organizações reconsiderem como os recursos humanos avaliam o desempenho e como os líderes e gerentes recompensam as pessoas. Pedir que gerentes e pessoas definam metas anuais e relatem sobre elas trimestralmente, cria um ciclo diferente e separado do que as equipes de releases e sprints estão operando. A medição do desempenho deve ser feita nas cadências de lançamento e impacto, e recompensa comportamentos dos fatores que incluem a demonstração de resultados, aprendizagem contínua e execução colaborativa.

Isso requer ferramentas e tecnologias diferentes. Gráficos de Gant, PowerPoints, documentos e planilhas são amplamente substituídos por ferramentas ágeis de gerenciamento de projetos, ferramentas de portfólio de produtos, wikis, ferramentas de colaboração e dashboards de business intelligence de autoatendimento.

Por último, requer uma nova forma de liderança. Os líderes precisam ser ouvintes e colaboradores extraordinários. Eles precisam ser capazes de explicar por que e ajudar as equipes a definir o que e como.

 

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