Facebook, a moeda Libra e a privacidade do usuário: LGPD é a resposta.


A iniciativa do Facebook de anunciar sua própria moeda digital (a cryptocurrency Libra) e seu próprio braço financeiro (Calibra) deve ser analisada à luz do anúncio da multa de US$ 5 Bilhões – cerca de R$ 19 bilhões – que a empresa concordou em pagar à Comissão Federal de Comércio dos EUA (FTC, Federal Trade Commission, uma espécie de órgão de defesa do consumidor). Essa decisão, ocorrida no dia 12 de julho, é a penalidade que o Facebook está sofrendo por, em 2016, ter liberado acesso a dados privados de seus usuários à empresa de inteligência política Cambridge Analytics.

Tanto no caso da Cambridge Analytics como na análise da iniciativa Calibra/Libra, o que está em debate é o respeito à privacidade dos dados dos usuários do Facebook.

Para entender a oferta Facebook/Calibra/Libra: a soma da cripto moeda Libra com os serviços providos pela Calibra devem dar origem à uma “carteira digital” que funcionará de forma totalmente sincronizada com o próprio Facebook, o Facebook Messenger e o WhatsApp. Porta vozes do Facebook explicam que a meta da empresa é criar um sistema de pagamentos digitais ao alcance de qualquer pessoa que tenha um smartphone. O Facebook não está sozinho nessa empreitada: 27 empresas – a Libra Association, que inclui Visa, MasterCard, Spotify, Uber, Lyft e PayPal – são seus parceiros. A Libra é apenas uma entre os 2.200 bitcoins que já existem.

Com 2,6 bilhões de usuários, o Facebook poderá oferecer serviços financeiros numa dimensão nunca vista antes.

A preocupação com a questão da privacidade dos dados dos futuros usuários do Calibra/Libra logo provocou reações. A senadora Maxine Waters, dos EUA, afirmou: “O Facebook possui dados de bilhões de pessoas e tem repetidamente demonstrado desrespeito pela proteção e uso cuidadoso desses dados”. Para o Ministro das Finanças da França, Bruno Le Maire, é necessário examinar cuidadosamente como o Libra/Calibra funcionaria. “A entrada do Facebook no mercado financeiro irá levar essa empresa a gerar e processar ainda mais dados de pessoas de todo o mundo. A integração do engine de Social Media com o Facebook Messenger ou o WhatsApp – plataformas que também pertencem ao Facebook – pode aumentar ainda mais a exposição de informações financeiras”.

Ou seja: a falta de controle e proteção destes dados preciosos expõem os usuários a condições de risco contra as quais eles não podem se defender, uma vez que a tutela destes dados está nas mãos de terceiros.

Não se trata de criar dificuldades para que a livre e espontânea iteração entre as partes envolvidas no projeto Calibra/Livra ocorra; o importante é delimitar as responsabilidades daqueles que venham a ser detentores de dados pessoais de seus clientes.

Quem já aderiu à General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), ou caminha nesta direção, está mais avançado em tudo o que diz respeito ao respeito à privacidade.

Desde maio do ano passado, 28 países europeus estão alinhados com a GDPR; na América Latina, Argentina, Colômbia, Chile, Peru, México e Uruguai já contam com legislações semelhantes à GDPR. O mesmo ocorre na região da Ásia/Pacífico, em que países como Singapura e Austrália estão avançando nesta área.

Transpondo este cenário para o Brasil, fica clara a importância da Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados (LGPD), que entrará em vigor a partir de agosto de 2020.

A LGPD trata, justamente, das responsabilidades de todos as entidades detentoras de dados pessoais de seus usuários. Um dos grandes pontos positivos da LGPD é indicar, direta e indiretamente, as diretrizes a serem seguidas para garantir a segurança e privacidade de nossos dados quando compartilhados com qualquer entidade com a qual mantenhamos relações digitais.

Neste contexto, chama a atenção o fato de que a criptomoeda do Facebook levará a empresa a participar de ainda mais iterações com seus usuários, coletando e armazenando ainda mais dados destes. Isso aumentará a exposição a que seus usuários podem ser submetidos caso se repitam casos de violação e vazamento de dados.

Esse risco pode diminuir se as empresas analisarem seus processos. E, a partir daí, determinarem qual informação sobre seus usuários é realmente essencial manter em suas bases de dados.

Menos dados pessoais de seus clientes significam menor exposição e maior segurança. Menos é mais.

O mundo digital é interconectado e isso tem impacto sobre a questão da privacidade. Há uma clara relação de corresponsabilidade entre as várias empresas que compõem a cadeia de manutenção dos dados pessoais dos clientes e usuários. Cada componente da cadeia, cada elo, deve determinar em seus processos as medidas necessárias para garantir a privacidade dos dados, estejam eles onde estiverem, circulem eles por onde circularem.

Em vez de avaliar a LGPD como mais uma peça de legislação que nos impõe mais limites e mais restrições nas relações digitais que mantemos como empresas e indivíduos, é hora de valorizar a abrangência que a lei tem.

Com a LGPD, passamos a ter, claramente, um cenário onde todos os envolvidos nesta partilha voluntária de dados digitais têm de levar em conta não apenas os direitos de cada um, mas os deveres de todas as partes. O jogo fica claro e justo.

Nós, usuários desta variedade infinita de plataformas digitais que suportam a vida moderna, temos o direito de decidir que dado compartilhar com quem e a quem confiaremos a tutela de tão preciosos dados pessoais.  O sistema Calibra/Libra, do Facebook, é apenas mais um campo onde essa nova e ética relação deve ser aplicada. Trata-se de fazer a coisa certa proativamente e, com isso, evitar multas bilionárias.

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