Crise faz o crédito secar para as empresas


A forte restrição dos bancos à concessão de crédito tem travado os negócios das empresas em vários setores da economia.

Com o caixa debilitado pelo baixo desempenho econômico e sem acesso a linhas de crédito para capital de giro ou investimentos, as companhias começam a enxugar as estruturas, reduzir o quadro de funcionários e adiar pagamentos.

Nos três primeiros meses do ano, a concessão de crédito para empresas no País caiu 14% em relação ao quarto trimestre de 2014, de R$ 429,5 bilhões para R$ 407,3 bilhões, conforme relatório do Banco Central (BC).

No mesmo período, entretanto, a demanda por empréstimos continuou em alta: subiu 9,7%, segundo a Serasa Experian.

“Se esse indicador está crescendo e a concessão caindo é sinal que os bancos estão mais seletivos na liberação de crédito”, explica o economista da empresa, Luiz Rabi.

Além do recuo no volume concedido, as taxas de juros aumentaram, os prazos de pagamento dos empréstimos diminuíram e a inadimplência cresceu.

Pelos dados da Serasa, o atraso nos pagamentos de despesas financeiras e não financeiras avançou 12% no primeiro trimestre, demonstrando a dificuldade das companhias diante da queda da atividade, custos mais elevados (energia elétrica e combustíveis, por exemplo) e escassez (e encarecimento) de crédito.

“Hoje, o principal problema das empresas é a falta de crédito. Se nada for feito, poderá haver um colapso que vai travar ainda mais a economia. Isso precisa ser olhado com urgência pelo governo”, afirma o diretor da Federação das Indústrias de São Paulo (Fiesp), José Ricardo Roriz.

Ele acredita que a Operação Lava Jato, que investiga corrupção em contratos da Petrobrás, tem ajudado a secar o mercado de crédito, já que alguns bancos terão prejuízos com operações feitas com empresas envolvidas no escândalo.

“Mas mesmo quem está fora dessa confusão está sendo punido. Os bancos públicos, o BNDES (Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social), não podem fechar as portas para o setor produtivo”, reclama o executivo.

No BNDES, fonte mais barata de financiamento para as empresas, o crédito com recursos direcionados (voltado para determinado segmento ou atividade) despencou 44,6% de janeiro a março comparado ao último trimestre de 2014, segundo o relatório do Banco Central.

A linha voltada para o capital de giro das empresas teve o maior baque na liberação: queda de 79,1% no período. O financiamento a investimentos caiu 43,6% e os empréstimos para o setor agroindustrial, 35,7%. Procurado, o banco de fomento não atendeu ao pedido de entrevista.

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